Brief notes on my translation of Romans 14:10-12
10 So why do yous judge yours brother, or why do yous despise yours brother? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.
[This is the Bema Seat of Jesus Christ. All believers from Pentecost in Jerusalem to the Rapture will be at this judgment. It is not to judge if we are believers regarding salvation. It is for rewards for being faithful or unfaithful in serving Jesus. Compare 2 Corinthians 5:10, 1 Corinthians 3:11-15, Revelation 2:23, and Ephesians 6:8. Wilbur Pickering notes: 2.4% of the Greek manuscripts read “God” instead of “Christ”, to be followed by NIV, NASB, TEV, LB, etc.—an inferior proceeding. See The Epistle to the Philippians by Polycarp chapter 6.
In the Corinthian passage the word “appear” (φανερόω phaneróō G5319) is used, but in the Romans passage “stand before” (παρίστημι parístēmi G3936) is used. The phrase “give account of himself to God” is only used in the Romans passage. It seems reasonable that the two phrases in one sentence written by Polycarp is referring to the same passage].
11 For it is written, “As I live,” says the Lord, “every knee will bow to me, and every tongue will make acknowledgment to God.” [Isaiah 45:23]
[The context makes it clear that these knees will be the knees of believers. However, it is true that all, believers and unbelievers, will appear before God and acknowledge Him. See 2 Corinthians 5:10, Ecclesiastes 12:14, and Isaiah 45:20-25].
12 So then every one of us will give an account of himself to God.