A Few Thoughts about Truth for 2022

Thinking about truth for 2022, I jotted down a few thoughts for my study.
There are, according to neo-classical thought, three basic philosophies of truth.
The neo-classical theories of truth (Source)
  • The correspondence theory—The basic idea of the correspondence theory is that what we believe or say is true if it corresponds to the way things actually are – to the facts.
  • The coherence theory—A belief is true if and only if it is part of a coherent system of beliefs.
  • Pragmatist theories
    • Truth is the end of inquiry.
    • Truth is satisfactory to believe.
Note that all these definitions depend upon a corresponding definition of each word, or it has no meaning. Each word has to have a real definition, or there is no communication. How can I read the basic definitions of each theory of truth and not have the same definitions for each word in each sentence or “slogan?” If each word had different meanings in the same context, then these sentences would be meaningless, and no communication could take place.
B1 For example, what does this mean?
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Sed viverra blandit nulla non elementum. Donec facilisis dui non varius volutpat. Sed nec porta metus, id tristique massa. Nulla facilisi. Quisque convallis, diam non semper tempus, diam lacus imperdiet dui, non efficitur urna est sit amet ipsum. In scelerisque ultrices erat nec sodales. Vestibulum ante ipsum primis in faucibus orci luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia curae; Phasellus suscipit nisl vitae mattis commodo. Aliquam erat volutpat. Etiam lobortis in massa in sodales. Morbi nunc ligula, laoreet eu augue vitae, iaculis faucibus est. Integer suscipit enim semper nunc mattis, non sollicitudin massa malesuada.
B2 Another example, “the philosophical theory of truth?”
B3 Each word must have an identical definition for any communication to take place.
B4 Each reader, student, teacher, etc. must have the same working definitions of each definition of the neo-classical theories of truth or no communication is possible. So, while their definitions to communication, they must use the same definitions of each word.
C1 Truth is the body of real things, events, and facts. (Source)
C2 Theory is an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain facts or events. (Source)
C3 Believe is to accept or regard (something) as true. (Source)
So, what is truth? It has to be held in common, correspond to facts, and commonly defined. In short, truth is reality.
B1 A common experience: Someone takes a hammer and hits the thumbs of 100 people. All will experience pain. Someone may deny it, but it still seems most reasonable since they are holding their thumb and grimacing.
B2 Someone steals an Apple iPhone XS with 512 Gig from 50 people. The owners that had their phones stolen will all feel some pain since the current price of Amazon (on 2 Jan 22) is $1249. It is a common experience. The reaction of each may be different, but the loss and anger at the loss will be similar.
How are we to understand what we are bombarded with in official sources, social media, print and online news media, speeches, etc? Some say one thing and some another.
We need a standard and accountability.
B1 A standard is needed to see if an object or idea is correct. An example in aviation: an instrument rating is needed to be qualified to fly solely by instruments. The instruments themselves must met a standard. The interpretation of the instrument by the pilot must be standard, too.
B2 Accountability is needed to ensure the standard is followed. An example would be building codes and the code inspector.
Even though someone might have various philosophical beliefs regarding truth, that person must still live in society. That person uses language, math, science, interactions with others, etc. all in the sense of reality, not some other belief regarding truth.
How does the Bible define truth?
B1 Hebrew
C1 From Jeff A. Benner: אֱמֶת emet
The root of this word is aman, a word often translated as “believe,” but more literally means “support,” as we see in Isaiah 22:23 where it says “I will drive him like a peg in a place of support…” A belief in Elohiym is not a mental exercise of knowing that Elohiym exists but rather our responsibility to show him our support. The word “emet” has the similar meaning of firmness, something that is firmly set in place. Psalms 119:142 says, “the “Torah” (the teachings of Elohiym) is “emet” (set firmly in place). Strong’s: #571
C2 Some examples:
D1 Joseph to his brothers: Genesis 42:13-16 NLT “Sir,” they said, “there are actually twelve of us. We, your servants, are all brothers, sons of a man living in the land of Canaan. Our youngest brother is back there with our father right now, and one of our brothers is no longer with us.” 14 But Joseph insisted, “As I said, you are spies! 15 This is how I will test your story. I swear by the life of Pharaoh that you will never leave Egypt unless your youngest brother comes here! 16 One of you must go and get your brother. I’ll keep the rest of you here in prison. Then we’ll find out whether or not your story is true. By the life of Pharaoh, if it turns out that you don’t have a younger brother, then I’ll know you are spies.”
D2 Proverbs 12:19 GNB A lie has a short life, but truth lives on forever.
D3 Isaiah 59:14 GNB Justice is driven away, and right cannot come near. Truth stumbles in the public square, and honesty finds no place there.
D4 Zechariah 8:16 NIrV Here is what you must do. Speak the truth to one another. Make true and wise decisions in your courts.
B2 Greek
C1 ἀλήθεια alḗtheia (G225)
D1 Aristotle
E1 Aristotle defines truth for classical philosophy: ‘to say of what is that it is, and of what is not that it is not, is true.’ (Metaphysics 1011b) (Source for E1 and E2)
E2 In another formula Aristotle says, ‘he who thinks the separated to be separated and the combined to be combined has the truth, while he whose thought is in a state contrary to the objects is in error’ (1051b). To be true, what you think separated must be what is separated-that is, they must be the same (the same form or eidos).
D2 TDNTa
E1 The Original Greek Usage and Its Differentiations. Etymologically alḗtheia means “nonconcealment.” It thus denotes what is seen, indicated, expressed, or disclosed, i.e., a thing as it really is, not as it is concealed or falsified. alḗtheia is “the real state of affairs,” e.g., the truth in law, or real events in history, or true being in philosophy.
C2 Some examples:
D1 Mark 5:33 GNB The woman realized what had happened to her, so she came, trembling with fear, knelt at his feet, and told him the whole truth.
D2 John 17:17 Pickering Sanctify them by Your truth; Your word is truth.
How do we know if something is true?
B1 We need a standard. Is it science, authority figure, government, religious leader?
B2 Consider propaganda.
C1 Propaganda techniques (definitions at source): Appeal to authority, Appeal to fear, Appeal to prejudice, Argumentum ad nauseam, Bandwagon effect, Inevitable victory, Join the crowd, Black and white fallacy, Common man, Demonizing the “enemy”, Direct order, Euphoria, Flag-waving, Glittering generality, Obtain disapproval, Quotes out of Context, Red herring, Scapegoating, Slogans, Stereotyping (Name calling, Labeling), Testimonial. (Source)
C2 Quotes
D1 The masses have never thirsted after truth. Whoever can supply them with illusions is easily their master; whoever attempts to destroy their illusions is always their victim—Gustave Le Bon.
D2 If you repeat a lie often enough, people will believe it, and you will even come to believe it yourself—Joseph Goebbels
B3 People believe what is comfortable to them, what agrees with their personal self, and what they want to believe. Reality is sometimes too difficult for an individual to believe and so reject it.
What is THE standard?
B1 I am a skeptical person. I’ve been fooled, deceived, tricked, etc. which makes me even skeptical. I need a standard and accountability. I need someone to help me avoids lies.
B2 It is most reasonable that Jesus, that Jesus of the Bible, is THE truth and what He thinks, desires, says, and does is truth. My testimony.
B3 2 Timothy 3:16-17 All Scripture is God-breathed and is beneficial for doctrine, convincing, correction, and for instruction in righteousness, 17 So that God’s people may be complete, fully equipped for all good works.
Some applications for the Christians
B1 God is true and has a kingdom, worldview, lifestyle, and rules that are true.
B2 Bible is true
B3 Christians must be true
C1 Yes must be yes and no must be no
C2 True in thoughts, desires, words, and deeds
There is protection is truth from the one who is the truth.
B1 Ephesians 6:14 NET Stand firm therefore, by fastening the belt of truth around your waist, by putting on the breastplate of righteousness.
B2 John 14:6 NET Jesus replied, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
We must read and study truth every day to be skilled and practiced in detecting lies.

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