A continuation of the superiority of Jesus Christ, the Son of God and Son of Man. Jesus is shown to be superior to angels in position, ability (Jesus is the Creator), honor, glory, and receives worship because He is God.
My translation and notes on Hebrews 1:5-14
5 For to which of the angels did he ever say, “Yous are my son, this day I have begotten yous?” [Psalm 2:7] And again, “I will be a Father to him, and he will be a Son to me?” [2 Samuel 7:14 and 1 Chronicles 17:13]
[Most understand ‘this day I have begotten you’ to refer to Jesus’s resurrection. God the Son—Jesus Christ—has always existed. Yet, some questioned the Son of Man—Jesus Christ—to be God’s son. This prophecy confirms God the Father’s testimony that yes indeed, Jesus Christ is the Son of God and the Son of Man. Psalm 2:7 is prophecy of the Messiah. This prophecy is fulfilled. Eyewitnesses are recorded in the New Testament. Jesus tells Joseph and Mary (His mother), He said to them, “Why is it that youp looked for me? Didn’t youp know that I must be about my Father’s [house]?” (Luke 2:49 and see note there), the ‘voice’ from heaven at Jesus’s baptism (Matthew 3:17), and God’s voice from heaven at the Mount of Transfiguration (Matthew 17:5 and 2 Peter 1:17). Jesus is noted to be the only begotten Son of God because of His virgin birth and His resurrection. See note at John 3:16. Compare Hebrew 3:5-6. In the Old Testament, Jesus, God the Son, was known primarily as ‘the Holy One.’ See Psalm 16:10, Psalm 78:41, Psalm 89:18, Isaiah 1:4, Isaiah 10:20, Isaiah 30:12, Ezekiel 39:7, Mark 1:24, and 1 John 2:20 (the anointing is the giving of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:1-4))].
6 Again, when he brings in the first born into the world, he says, “Let all the angels of God worship him.” [Deuteronomy 32:43 (Septuagint)]
[This is a testimony of Jesus’s deity. God’s law forbids worship anything except Yahweh. See Exodus 20:2-5 and Hosea 13:4. When the angels are commanded to worship this ‘first born,’ we understand that Jesus is God].
7 But about the angels he says, “Who makes his angels spirits and his attendants a flame of fire.” [Psalm 104:4]
[The writer is pointing out the obvious difference between Messiah and angels. Angels are spirits (non-material), are created, serve God (attendants/agents), and are a flame of fire (used as zealous instruments for quick action/obedience/effect)].
8 But to the Son [he says], “Yours throne, O God, is forever and ever. A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of yours kingdom.
[Note the contrast between the Son and angels. The Son has a throne (the delegator), is God, is NOT made (forever and ever, that is, no beginning and no end), is righteous (without flaws or sins), and is an active king ruling His kingdom].
9 “Yous have loved righteousness and hated breaking the law, therefore, God, yours God, has anointed yous with the oil of gladness far above yours peers.” [Psalm 45:6-7]
[More traits of Messiah, who is God. Note, he has always been God. Messiah loves righteousness (lives what He commands and teaches), hates breaking the law (He does not, nor does He allow any to break the law). Because of these traits God the Father has anointed Messiah with the ‘oil of gladness’ more than any other. Regarding the ‘oil of gladness’ Adam Clarke writes:
We have often had occasion to remark that, anciently, kings, priests, and prophets were consecrated to their several offices by anointing; and that this signified the gifts and influences of the Divine Spirit. Christ, ὁ Χριστος, signifies The Anointed One, the same as the Hebrew Messias; and he is here said to be anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows. None was ever constituted prophet, priest, and king, but himself; some were kings only, prophets only, and priests only; others were kings and priests, or priests and prophets, or kings and prophets; but none had ever the three offices in his own person but Jesus Christ, and none but himself can be a King over the universe, a Prophet to all intelligent beings, and a Priest to the whole human race. Thus, he is infinitely exalted beyond his fellows—all that had ever borne the regal, prophetic, or sacerdotal offices].
10 And, “Yous, Lord, in the beginning laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of yours hands.
11 “They will perish, but yous remain. All of them will become worn out like garment,
12 “Like outer clothing yous will fold them up, and they will be changed, but yous are the same, and yours years do not end.” [Psalm 102:25-27]
[More traits of Messiah. Messiah existed before creation, is the creator. Is eternal without beginning or end, does not change (worn out/grow old/corrupt)].
13 To which of the angels did He ever say, “Sit at my right hand, until I make yours enemies yours footstool?” [Psalm 110:1-4]
[More traits of Messiah. Messiah sits at God the Father’s right hand (thus, the greatest honor and authority outside God the Father Himself), has enemies that will be humiliated and destroyed. See Luke 20:43].
14 Are not all ministering spirits sent out to help those who will be heirs of salvation?
[Angels have been delegated to help/assist those who believe and have faith in Jesus only for salvation. Every child has a guardian angel but for adults only believers in Jesus (Matthew 18:10). Angels may be commissioned for various duties but regarding ministering (Psalm 103:20-21, it is only for believers—the heirs of salvation. The Greek word for ‘ministering’ is λειτουργικός leitourgikós (G3010) and is used one time. It means ministry particularly ministering to God. In the Septuagint it is used in Exodus 30:10 (the High Priest and his sons ministering to God), in Numbers 4 (numerous times referring to the Kohathites ministering in the Lord’s presence), and Daniel 7:10 (angels ministering). ‘Heirs of salvation—see Titus 3:7, Romans 8:17, Galatians 3:29, and 1 Peter 1:3-4].