Paul again writes to Timothy with more instructions and encouragements. It is a personal letter rather than a formal letter. Paul discusses his situation and discouragements. He is grateful for the personal teaching of Timothy when he was young from his grandmother and mother. He encourages Timothy to not be timid, and how God’s grace provides daily strength for boldness when being faced with adversity from foes.
My translation and notes from 2 Timothy 1:1-14
2 Timothy Chapter 1
1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by God’s will according to the promise of life, which is in Christ Jesus,
[By the will of God—literally the word ‘by’ is ‘through’ emphasizing God was the initiator and commissioner of Paul. The ‘promise of life’ is eternal life with God in His home. Paul is an apostle in accordance with God’s mission to present this promise of life. Christ Jesus has life Himself (John 5:26) and is able to give life to non-life. Adam was sculptured dirt that Jesus, the creator, gave life to. Believers of any age or time have an instantaneous rebirth of the inner person from death to life by the Spirit of God].
2 To Timothy, my dearly beloved son. May grace, mercy, [and] peace [be yourss] from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
[The is Paul’s usual greeting. ‘Dearly beloved son’ because Paul is old and has by this time been condemned to death. Paul recognizes the only source of grace, mercy, and peace is from God Himself—God the Father and God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. For the background on Timothy, see Acts 16].
Remembering Timothy’s Mother and Grandmother
3 I thank God, whom I serve from [my] forefathers with a pure conscience, that without ceasing I remember yous in my prayers night and day,
[Evidently Paul has what we call a prayer list. Darby (JOHN DARBY BIBLE SYNOPSIS) has this note: The apostle does not speak any longer of the high character of his work, but of his personal position rightly felt according to the Spirit. He had served God, following in the steps of his forefathers, with a pure conscience. In every way he was a vessel made unto honour. For more than one generation his ancestors were distinguished for a good conscience; and personal piety, founded on the truth, shewed itself in the service of God. Paul was not here pressing a judgment as to the inward condition of each generation: it was their character. He calls to mind a similar fact with regard to Timothy, in whose case however personal faith is referred to, known to Paul himself, so that the bond, though of personal feeling, was christian].
4 Greatly desiring to see yous—remembering yours tears—that I may be filled with joy
[For ‘tears’ see Acts 20:17 and Acts 20:37. There is no joy in departing from one another or seeing others suffer for the Gospel and cause of Jesus Christ. This joy that Paul speaks about is a fruit of the Holy Spirit working through a believer to be a witness to God and blessing to others].
5 While I recall the sincere faith that is in yous, which first resided in yours grandmother, Lois, and yours mother, Eunice, and I am convinced is in yous also.
[Paul also finds joy from the lives of fellow believers—Timothy for his dedicated assistance and his sincere faith, Timothy’s grandmother, Lois, for her faithfulness to God, and Timothy’s mother for also being faithful. He finds joy knowing Timothy himself is steadfast and faithful. Compare Apostle John in 2 John 1:12 and 3 John 1:4].
Don’t Be Timid
6 Therefore, I want to remind yous to rekindle the gift of God, which is in yous by the laying on of my hands.
[The laying on of my hands is something Paul as an Apostle of Jesus Christ had authority to do, not every believer. This reminder is not because it has disappeared from Timothy’s life but to encourage him, to strengthen him, to motivate him, to remind Timothy of God’s power, love, and sound mind from God’s assisting grace].
7 For God has not given us the spirit of timidity but of power, love, and a sound mind.
[The Greek word for ‘timidity’ is (G1167) δειλία deilía. It means lack of mental or moral strength, cowardice (BDAG). It is not just fear but fear that causes someone to not do something. That is human fear. The Spirit given to us is to be bold, show love, and clear thinking. Compare Acts 4:13 and 29-31. The Greek word for ‘power’ is (G1411) δύναμις dunamis. It means ability and strength. It is God’s strength to accomplish the mission He has given us (Philippians 4:13). See Luke 9:1, Acts 1:8, 1 Corinthians 2:5, and Ephesians 3:20. For ‘love’ see notes at 1 Corinthians 13:4 and following. The Greek word for ‘sound mind’ is (G4995) σωφρονισμός sōphronismós. It means self-discipline and prudence (BDAG). Vincent (WORD STUDIES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT) writes: Not self-control, but the faculty of generating it in others or in one’s self, making them …of sound mind. Comp. Titus 2:4. Rend[er] discipline].
8 Therefore, don’t be ashamed of our Lord’s testimony or of me, a prisoner for him, instead share the afflictions with me for the Good News by the power of God,
[The Lord’s testimony refers to His 3.5+ year ministry. ‘Share the afflictions with me’ because we are one body. When one suffers, we all suffer (1 Corinthians 12:26). When one rejoices, we all rejoice. We pray and help one another. The reason for afflictions is found in Luke 21:17. Paul does not give up preaching because of afflictions from those who oppose the Gospel. The reason he does not give up is because Jesus commissioned him, and in the same way he encourages Timothy to continue].
9 Who has saved and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works but according to his own plan and grace, which was given us by Christ Jesus before the world began.
[‘Saved and called us’ not because we are so wonderful and do so many wonderful things. It refers to His plan and grace. Salvation is the plan. The Messiah was ready to serve even before creation. God did not plan the fall into sin but knew it would happen. Because He knows beforehand—a trait of God alone—Jesus would be ready to serve. Good works are something done after salvation. Good works are not for forgiveness of sins. They are the fruit of God’s grace working in us. Compare John 4:14].
10 But now is clearly seen by the arrival of our Savior Jesus Christ who has made death ineffective and making life and immortality evident through the Good News.
[This plan has now been enacted by the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. The Gospel is His death, burial, resurrection, and ascension. See 1 Corinthians 15:3-4. Because the Lord Jesus was raised from death to life, death has been defeated. Death is sentenced but the sentence had not been served until 1 Corinthians 15:24-25 Then the end comes when he will have delivered the kingdom to God, even the Father, after he has made all rule, authority, and power inoperative. 25 For he must reign until he has put all enemies under his feet. Now, there is gift of eternal life for believers in Jesus (John 3:15, Romans 6:23, and 1 John 2:25)].
11 For which, I was appointed a preacher, an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.
[Biblical preaching has been defined to be the result of delivering a message to a crowd, people are motivated to do God’s will. Two people can deliver the same message. One is just words; the other moves people to obey God’s will. The word is usually used for preaching the Gospel and preaching about sin. The Greek word for ‘preach’ is (G2783) κῆρυξ kēryx, which comes from the root word (G2784) κηρύσσω kērýssō, which means to speak an official message, herald, delivering the King’s message. An Apostle was the appointed witness concerning Jesus Christ. No one can be a preacher unless they have put their faith and trust in Jesus Christ alone, read and study the Scriptures, and pray. An Apostle taught the message about Jesus, authenticated it (eyewitness), and examined other messages and life to see if it met God’s standards (the New Testament). Paul spent most of his ministry teaching by word and letter].
12 It is for this reason that I suffer these things. Nevertheless, I am not ashamed, for I know whom I have believed and am persuaded that he is able to keep safe what I have committed to him for that day.
[satan’s followers and children (1 John 3:10) hate Jesus, His ministry, and His salvation. So, satan works to destroy the Gospel message, believers, and those who preach and share the Gospel with others. Paul affirms that he is not ashamed (Isaiah 28:16 LXX). The Greek word for ‘ashamed’ is (G1870) ἐπαισχύνομαι epaischýnomai. It means to experience a painful feeling or sense of loss of status because of some particular event or activity, be ashamed (BDAG). See Mark 8:38 and Hebrews 2:11. The Greek word for ‘believe’ is (G4100) πιστεύω pisteuo. It means to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in (Outline of Biblical Usage) as in 1 Timothy 3:16 and 1 John 3:23. It also has the sense of truth. How can we believe unless we trust the person? When I believe someone, I also trust that what they are saying is true. The Greek word for ‘persuaded’ is (G3982) πείθω peitho. It means to convince, to cause to come to a particular point of view or course of action (BDAG). The Greek word for ‘keep safe’ is (G3866) παραθήκη parathḗkē. It means entrust with a deposit which involves faith and trust in the one who receives the deposit. Compare Leviticus 6:2, 4-5 NIV If anyone sins and is unfaithful to the LORD by deceiving a neighbor about something entrusted to them or left in their care or about something stolen, or if they cheat their neighbor,… 4 when they sin in any of these ways and realize their guilt, they must return what they have stolen or taken by extortion, or what was entrusted to them, or the lost property they found, 5 or whatever it was they swore falsely about. They must make restitution in full, add a fifth of the value to it and give it all to the owner on the day they present their guilt offering. Paul has a strong commitment to God and trusts his soul to God without any worry or reservation. This commitment is based on reason and his experiences agreeing with that reason. The ‘day’ is when Paul reaches heaven and meets his savior Jesus Christ. Compare 1 Corinthians 3:13].
13 In faith and love for Christ Jesus, hold tightly, to this standard of sound teaching, which yous heard from me.
[Paul urges Timothy to keep possessing this standard of sound teaching. Keep it in your hand, your heart, your mind, your love with total commitment. The Greek word for ‘standard’ is (G5296) ὑποτύπωσις hupŏtupōsis. It means a pattern as a wood working or sewing pattern thus standard. What is sound teaching? It is teaching that conforms and lines up with this standard—the Scriptures. Paul preached according to this standard. He was taught these things from others—in particular the Apostles—and as revealed by Jesus Himself (1 Corinthians 11:23 and Galatians 1:11-12). There are several interpretations of ‘in faith and love for Christ Jesus.’ We continue with the standard/pattern of sound teaching because of our loyalty to Christ Jesus. The literal translation is ‘in faith and love which [is] in Christ Jesus].
14 The good thing, which was entrusted to yous, is kept safe by the [help] of the Holy Spirit who lives in us.
[The Holy Spirit gives every believer a gift (1 Peter 4:10-11) and a mission (Ephesians 4:7-14). The Holy Spirit then assists us to carry out that mission using the gift He gave].