Specially, I’m addressing the concept of eternal death, and how it is described in the Bible.
An example is Daniel 12:2 NRSV Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. Why doesn’t God state everlasting life and everlasting death?
Everlasting death is not used because death is associated with cessation of existence. Death brings cessation of physical life but does not bring cessation of existence, so death is described by other eternal things. Remember these actions apply to those who do not believe, they never end. These people will always, forever, will experience these punishments. There is everlasting physical pain, emotional pain (sorrow, etc.), and spiritual pain (anger at God, etc.). Evil people refusing to believe are resurrected in some type of everlasting body in which contains the nonmaterial portion of every human (soul and spirit).
B1 Everlasting shame and contempt
B2 Everlasting maggots and fire Isaiah 66:24 NLT And as they go out, they will see the dead bodies of those who have rebelled against me. For the worms that devour them will never die, and the fire that burns them will never go out. All who pass by will view them with utter horror.
B3 Eternal destruction, not annihilation 2 Thessalonians 1:9 They will suffer the penalty of eternal destruction, separated from the presence of the Lord and the glory of His might. BSB
B4 Everlasting torment Matthew 25:46 WEL These will go away into everlasting torment but the righteous into eternal life.
B5 Eternal fire Jude 1:7
B6 Eternal fire and torment Revelation 14:9-11
God’s punishment of sinners is also described as
B1 Outer darkness (the greatest darkness possible) Matthew 25:30 and 2 Peter 2:17
B2 Weeping and gnashing of teeth Matthew 25:30
B3 Wrath, anger, trouble, and distress Romans 2:8-9 But for those who are self-seeking and who reject the truth and follow wickedness, there will be wrath and anger. 9 There will be trouble and distress for every human being who does evil, first for the Jew, then for the Greek. BSB
Some other issues
God is just to punish.
B1 For treatment of those who hurt His believers 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10. Here are verses 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9 NRSV in flaming fire, inflicting vengeance on those who do not know God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. 9 These will suffer the punishment of eternal destruction, separated from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his might.
B2 It is just punishment Hebrews 2:2-3 NRSV For if the message declared through angels was valid, and every transgression or disobedience received a just penalty, 3 how can we escape if we neglect so great a salvation? It was declared at first through the Lord, and it was attested to us by those who heard him.
B3 John 5:28-30 NRSV Do not be astonished at this; for the hour is coming when all who are in their graves will hear his voice 29 and will come out—those who have done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done evil, to the resurrection of condemnation. 30 “I can do nothing on my own. As I hear, I judge; and my judgment is just, because I seek to do not my own will but the will of him who sent me.
God shows no favoritism. Colossians 3:25 NLT But if you do what is wrong, you will be paid back for the wrong you have done. For God has no favorites.
God punishes for rebellion (Isaiah 66:24), disobedience (Romans 2:8, 2 Thessalonians 1:8), rejection (John 12:48), and refusing to believe (Acts 7:51).
God gives justice for those who have been wronged, that is, cheated from something they were to have and/or enjoy. Those causing the wrong will be punished. 1 Peter 2:23 NRSV When he was abused, he did not return abuse; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he entrusted himself to the one who judges justly.
Judgment is not always readily seen. Jeremiah 12:1 NRSV You will be in the right, O LORD, when I lay charges against you; but let me put my case to you. Why does the way of the guilty prosper? Why do all who are treacherous thrive? It would be helpful to read all of chapter 12 because the Lord answers Jeremiah. Compare Luke 16:25.
God completely knows every thought and deed. Isaiah 66:18.
The danger of ignoring or hating wisdom (See Proverbs 8) results in Proverbs 8:36 CEV But if you don’t find me, you hurt only yourself, and if you hate me, you are in love with death.
Wanting to do and doing evil has a result. Proverbs 11:19 GW As righteousness leads to life, so whoever pursues evil finds his own death.
What we think is right, is probably wrong. Proverbs 14:12 NLT There is a path before each person that seems right, but it ends in death.
B1 John 3:15-16 WEL So that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. 16 For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, so that anyone believing in him should not perish but have everlasting life.
B2 Acts 10:43 NLT He is the one all the prophets testified about, saying that everyone who believes in him will have their sins forgiven through his name.
B3 Acts 13:39 NLT Everyone who believes in him is declared right with God—something the law of Moses could never do.
B4 Romans 3:22 NLT We are made right with God by placing our faith in Jesus Christ. And this is true for everyone who believes, no matter who we are.
Death, Hell, Punishment justified, Everlasting punishment